|Fried chicken recipes below|
Fried chicken recipe: http://americanfood.about.com/od/chickenrecipes/ss/Fried-Chicken-Recipe.htm
Video vegan fried chicken recipe: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=te6Cv7RTazU
|Fried chicken recipes below|
Solomon Northrop (1808 –circa 1863) was an African American born free in New York’s Hudson Valley. He played the fiddle and often booked parties where he played for pay and thus made extra income. Two white men, Merrill Brown and Abram Hamilton, posing as the representative of a traveling circus approached him at one of his musical outings and engaged him to play for a circus in Washington, D. C. in 1841. Northrop agreed. He traveled to New York City to obtain his freedmen papers then headed to Washington, D.C. which was one of the nation’s largest slave markets. Northrop, who was married with children, thought that the engagement would be short so he did not bother his wife with the details of his trip. Shortly after he checked into his Washington hotel, he met with Brown and Hamilton for a drink. The two men drugged him, stole his free papers, and sold him at a DC auction into slavery in Louisiana. Louisiana was one of the those slave states that masters in the upper south would use as leverage to keep rebellious slaves in line, warning them that if they did not obey either they or a loved one would be sold “down south” where one’s life as a slave proved much more difficult then say in Maryland or Virginia. Northrop would remain enslaved in Louisiana from 1841 to 1953 until he was finally he was able to get a message to a white patron in New York who successfully gained his manumission. After gaining is freedom, Northrop returned to the north where became a noted speaker on the anti-slavery speaking circuit. He would go on to document his ordeal in a published autobiography titled, Twelve Years A Slave by Solomon Northrop. The book undermined the argument of slavocrats who insisted that masters treated their slaves better than bosses treated wage workers in the free states. The book also provides an example of the agency of blacks folk both in and out of slavery to gain their freedom during the antebellum period. I used the book to gain valuable insights into southern foodways which I've talked about in earlier post.
Solomon Northrop on southern foodways: http://frederickdouglassopie.blogspot.com/2010/12/christmas-foodway-series-culinary.html
Photo of Paschal’s old location in South West Atlanta, recipes below
After the success of Montgomery Improvement Association and the end of the Jim Crow laws on buses in Montgomery, Alabama in 1956, Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK) returned to Atlanta, Georgia. There he organized the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957 and he served as the associated pastor of his father’s church. Paschal’s served as a popular meeting place for black activists and politicians. MLK and his SCLC lieutenants, Maynard Jackson, and Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee’s (SNCC) Julian Bond, who all attended Morehouse, held strategy meetings over Paschal’s famed fried chicken along with collard greens, corn bread, mac and cheese and sweet potato pie, or a plate of eggs, grits, and a cup of coffee. Brothers James and Robert Paschal first opened a lunch counter sandwich shop on Hunter Street in Atlanta in 1947. Overtime the brothers moved to a location adjacent to the AUC and expanded their business to include a motel, a night club on the famous Chitin Circuit, and a white table cloth restaurant. According to Marcellas C. D. Barksdale, who attended Morehouse in the early 1960s, during segregation Paschal’s remained the first choice for a Sunday meal for “Doctor and Mrs. so and so.” In addition to formal dining, Paschal’s also had a lunch counter and grill where you could also order fried chicken, collards and corn bread in a casual setting. Back when I taught in the Morehouse College History Department (2000-2003) Paschal's moved to a new elegant location that perhaps tripled its square footage and provided space for private dining rooms. The quality of the food had not changed and perhaps it even improved. Below are some recipes reminiscent of Paschal’s culinary legacy.
Mac and cheese recipes: http://allrecipes.com/Recipe/Southern-Macaroni-and-Cheese/MoreRecipesLikeThis.aspx
Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955) founded The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), a non-profit organization in 1935 during the Depression. Bethune worked principally as an educator and later she served as member of President Franklin D. Roosevelt “Black Cabinet” advising the president on issues related his African American constituency. NCNW programs focused on improving the lives and opportunities for people in the United States and Africa. For example it published under the direction of the NCNW’s Dorothy I. Height (1912-2010) http://www.npr.org/2011/02/17/133839602/dorothy-height-queen-of-black-womens-empowerment, The Black Family Dinner Quilt Cookbook (first edition 1993). Still in publication, the book is an important part of the organizations national obesity abatement initiative which provides excellent tips for cooking heart-healthy soul food which I also talk about in my book Hog and Hominy http://cup.columbia.edu/book/978-0-231-14638-8/hog-and-hominy. NCNW’s cook book suggests cooking and baking with margarine or liquid vegetable oils such as canola oil, safflower oil, or olive oil, instead of lard. Other instructions for heart-healthy meals include roasting, baking, broiling, grilling, and stir-frying instead of deep-fat frying. Use smoked turkey, turkey bacon, and imitation soy meat products instead of ham hocks, fatback, and bacon to season greens and other vegetables. Remove most of the skin (which is primarily fat) from poultry before cooking. Eat more fiber-rich foods such as legumes, whole grain products, fruits and vegetables, brown rice, red potatoes, and whole wheat, spelt, or spinach pasta. Avoid organ meats as much as possible. Use olive oil and vinegar and vegetable-based mayonnaise dressing instead of real mayonnaise-based dressings. Eat soy or rice milk ice cream with zero cholesterol instead of high cholesterol ice cream.
|Tom Tom, a one pot dish, recipes below|
Champburger, burger recipes below (Photo from http://www.mixingbowl.com/home/view.castle)
As a Member of the Nation of Islam, a black pacifist religious organization, Muhammad Ali refused to be drafted into the U. S. army during the Vietnam War. As he told one reporter, “I ain’t got no quarrel with them Viet Congs. No Viet Cong ever called me Nigger.” His anti-war position resulted in Federal authorities sentenced him to five years imprisonment, and a fine of $1, 00,000 (He appealed the decision consequently keeping out of jail) and forced him to surrender his passport thus preventing him from earning money fighting abroad. Furthermore the World Boxing Association took his title and boxing license so he could not fight in the United States. To support his family, Ali among other activities, signed a restaurant franchise deal in 1968 that launched a chain of black-owned-and-operated “Champburger Palaces” in black neighborhoods. Champburger menus included Champburgers, all beef “hot dogs, along with fried chicken, fried and boiled fish and Mr. Champ soft drinks.
Best burger recipes: http://www.culinary.net/articlesfeatures/FeatureDetail.aspx?ID=1455
Best veggie burger recipes: http://www.tamaraduker.com/2010/01/resolved-the-best-homemade-veggie-burger/
Portobello mushroom burger recipe: http://www.veggienumnum.com/2010/06/portobello-mushroom-burger-w-homemade-fries/
Popovers, recipes below (Photo from http://rootsoftaste.wordpress.com/)
Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (1908-1972) became the first African American to serve in the U. S. Congress (1945 to 1971) representing the 22nd congressional district, which included Harlem. Powell also served as pastor of the Abyssinian Baptist Church, perhaps the most politically powerful African American congregation in New York City. Both of Powell’s parents were southerners. “I was born more than a half century ago, when [a] black stove was a place of magic where the coal fire always glowed and from which good things came,” writes Powell. He goes on to say, “I don’t know how we modern men live on such paltry offerings—food then was food. For breakfast we had a different hot bread every morning—muffins, biscuits, corn bread, loaves of hot oatmeal bread with handfuls of raisins and blueberries sprinkled through them; pancakes so big that they seemed to be a yard wide but, in fact, were only the size of a big frying pan. . . and popovers so big you could put up your hand inside, which there was room for plenty of butter.” A Popover is a hollow quick bread shaped like a muffin and made from a thin batter of eggs, milk, and flour. Popovers evolved out of English pudding batters from the 17th century with their first documented history in a 1850 letter and later in a late nineteenth century cook book. Its popularity made its way from Maine to New York and some called for greasing the muffin tins with beef or pork drippings creating a meat flavored pastry. Other interpretations used garlic and herbs in the batter and still another recipe included substituting purred pumpkin for some of the flour and further flavoring the batter with allspice, nutmeg, and or cinnamon. Today most popovers have a butter flavor instead of meat or eggnog like flavor.
Vegan popover recipe: http://www.ecovegangal.com/2008/12/vegan-popovers.html
Popover tips and tricks: http://home.insightbb.com/~bonnett/popover/popover_tipsandtricks.htm
Vegetarian green bean recipes: http://whatscookingamerica.net/Vegetarian/VegetarianGreenBeans.htm
Green bean casserole: http://blog.fatfreevegan.com/2006/11/best-vegan-green-bean-casserole.html
Roasted Potato and Green Bean Salad: http://foodmuses.wordpress.com/2010/08/01/roasted-potato-and-green-bean-salad/
Vegan green bean recipes: http://vegweb.com/index.php?board=453.0
Brunswick stew, recipes below (Photo from http://veganthyme.blogspot.com/)
One of the leading figures in the black power and black arts movements of the late 1960s was Amiri Baraka, formerly LeRoi Jones. Born in 1934 in Newark New Jersey, Baraka wrote an essay on soul food as a rebuttal to critics who argued that African Americans had no language or characteristic cuisine. He insisted that hog maws, chitterling sweet potato pie, gravy and pork sausage, fried chicken, or chicken in the basket, barbecued ribs, hoppin’ John, hush puppies, fried fish, hoe cakes, biscuits, salt pork, dumplings, and gumbo all came directly out of the black belt region of the South and represented the best of African-American cookery. He and others like him called for a new, independent, proud black identity. Baraka advocated soul food as black folk’s cuisine and argued that Harlem cuisine his soul food and it comes straight from southern migrants. “Sweet potato pies, a good friend of mine asked recently, ‘Do they taste anything like pumpkin?’ Negative. They taste more like memor[ies],” of the south. In response to the black power and black arts movements, publication of the first soul food cookbooks began to appear in progressive book stores in the 1960s. I cannot recommend any better meal on a cold February day then a piping hot bowl or cup of gumbo; here are two recipes below.
Traditional gumbo recipe: http://www.bigoven.com/170608-New-Orleans-Creole-Gumbo-recipe.html
Vegan gumbo recipe: http://vegweb.com/index.php?topic=27730.0
For those, like my wife, who can’t stand typos, watch out! I have severe ADD which kept me from moving forward with this blog for too long. My friend encouraged me to start blogging and just disclose my disability the same way I do on the first day of class as a college professor. Folks I regularly make spelling mistakes because of my disability. In order to get two books and several academic journal articles published I use a professional copy editor. To blog that would take too much time and money. So if you can overlook my typos, enjoy my musings.
Note: I am also on